English versions of the following articles are available online

Title: Beyond “Labor of Love”
Author: Anna Puigjaner. Architect, ETSAB, UPC, Barcelona, ​​Spain, 2004. MArch, ETSAB, UPC, Barcelona, ​​Spain, 2008. Doctor in Architecture, ETSAB, UPC, Barcelona, ​​Spain, 2014. Co-founder of MAIO Architects, Barcelona, ​​Spain. Was editor of Quaderns magazine, Colegio de Arquitectos de Cataluña (2011-2016). Her projects have been exhibited at Venice (2016) and Chicago (2017) biennials, and at the Oslo triennial (2016), among others. She was awarded with the Wheelwright Prize, Harvard GSD, 2016.
Abstract: While we usually understand cooking as part of the domestic environment – and therefore, private – this research shows that this is not always the case. Throughout a journey to different parts of the world, we see that collective kitchens have a massive dimension that we tend to overlook. Anna Puigjaner’s photographs allow us to appreciate that what we consider private can be public, acquiring thus a new potential for transformation.
Keywords: kitchen; Wheelwright Prize; gender; domesticity; collective.
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Title: On Expulsions
Author: Saskia Sassen. Master’s degree in Social Sciences and Ph.D. in Economics, Notre Dame University, 1974. Robert S. Lynd Professor of Sociology and Member of the Committee on Global Thought, Columbia University. Among her books areTerritory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages(Princeton University Press, 2008),A Sociology of Globalization (W.W. Norton, 2007), the fully updated edition ofCities in a World Economy(Sage, 2011) and Expulsions: Brutality and Complexity in the Global Economy (Harvard University Press, 2014). Her most important book, The Global City(Princeton University Press, 1991), came out in a new fully updated edition in 2001. She has received many awards and honors, among them twelve doctor honoris causa, multiple named lectures, the 2013 Principe de Asturias Prize in the Social Sciences, election as a Foreign Member of the Royal Academy of the Sciences of the Netherlands, and made a Chevalier de l’Ordre des Arts et Lettres by the French government.
Abstract: Migrations, wars, economy crashes, ecological crises and other phenomena of massive scale have become usual in recent years. And while they concern us because of their extensiveness and recurrence, we tend to understand them as isolated effects. However, in her last book Expulsions, Saskia Sassen argues that these are only different aspects of the same problem: the ‘predatory formations’ of contemporary capitalism that generate unprecedented levels of inequality. A context where many people end up being expelled from the economy.
Keywords: Inequality; systemic edge; accumulation; welfare state; predatory formations.
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Title: MANY
Author: Keller Easterling. Architect, Princeton University, USA. She has written the books Extrastatecraft: The Power of Infrastructure Space (Verso, 2014), Subtraction (Sternberg Press, 2014), The Action is the Form: Victor Hugo’s ted Talk (Strelka Press ebook, 2012), Enduring Innocence: Global Architecture and its Political Masquerades (MIT Press, 2005) and Organization Space: Landscapes, Highways and Houses in America (MIT Press, 1999). Easterling’s research and writing was included in the 2014 Venice Biennale, and she has been exhibited at Storefront for Art and Architecture in New York, the Rotterdam Biennale, and the Architectural League in New York. Since 1998 is a professor at Yale University.
Abstract: Until recently, the sharing economy was seen as a response to contemporary capitalism, with atomization on a massive scale as a resistance to the corporate and state centralism. Today, however, when those collaborative platforms have been transformed into global corporations, that hope seems to have exhausted. This project recovers the original expectations of network economy to propose a solution to the migratory crisis, replacing the massive mobility of people by the massive exchange of knowledge and skills.
Keywords: platform; migration; networking; exchange; multi-glyph.
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Title: The weight of Bitcoin
Author: Ethel Baraona Pohl. Critic, writer and curator. Co-founder of the independent research studio and publishing house dpr-barcelona, which operates in the fields of architecture, political theory and the social milieu. Editor of Quaderns d’arquitectura i urbanisme from 2011-2016, her writing appears in Open Source Architecture (Thames and Hudson, 2015), The Form of Form (Lars Muller, 2016), Together! The New Architecture of the Collective (Ruby Press, 2017), and Harvard Design Magazine, among others. Associate curator for Adhocracy, Istanbul Design Biennial (2012) and exhibited at the New Museum, NYC (May 2013) and Lime Wharf, London (summer 2013); also co-curator of Adhocracy ATHENS at the Onassis Cultural Centre, 2015. Director of Foros, the architecture lecture series of the UIC Barcelona School of Architecture in 2017.; Cesar Reyes Najera. Architect, PhD in Bio-climatic Construction Systems and Materials. Co-founder of the independent research studio and publishing house dpr-barcelona. His research and theoretical work is linked to leading publications in architectural discourse, including Archis advisor for Volume magazine. His writing can be found in architecture books, both printed and digital, such as Architecture is All Over (Columbia Books on Architecture and the City, 2017), (On the Floating World of) the FX Beauties (Christine Bjerke (ed.), 2017) Archifutures vol. 1: The Museum (dpr-barcelona, 2016), Uncube and Continent, among others. Co-curator of the third Think Space program with the theme ‘Money,’ and co-curator of Adhocracy ATHENS at the Onassis Cultural Center, 2015. His practice, dpr-barcelona is member of Future Architecture platform.
Abstract: Money must be one of the most successful human creations in terms of its extension and massiveness. Its forms, however, are multiple. For instance, we are witnessing today a cryptocurrency boom that threatens to render physical money obsolete. But, as this article sharply shows, no matter how digital a cryptocurrency is, its creation has physical effects on a massive scale, especially in terms of energy consumption and carbon footprint.
Keywords: crypto networks; blockchain; mining; energy consumption; carbon footprint.
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Title: Communal Villa. Production and Reproduction in Artist’s Housing.
Author: Pier Vittorio Aureli. Architect, Università IUAV di Venezia, Italy. PhD, tu Delft, Netherlands – Berlage Institute, Rotterdam, 2005. Together with Martino Tattara co-founded DOGMA. Led the PhD program The City as Project, at the Berlage Institute. Currently teaches at the aa School of Architecture, London, and is visiting professor at Yale University. Has authored essays and books, including The Project of Autonomy (Princeton Architectural Press, 2008), The Possibility of an Absolute Architecture (MIT Press, 2011), Pier Vittorio Aureli interviewed by 0300 TV (Ediciones ARQ, 2014); Martino Tattara Architect, Università IUAV di Venezia, 2002. Master of Architecture, Berlage Institute, Rotterdam, 2005. Doctor, Università IUAV di Venezia, 2008. Together with Pier Vittorio Aureli co-founded DOGMA. He has taught at the Berlage Institute, Rotterdam and as a visiting professor at the Università di Cagliari. He is currently a professor at the Faculty of Architecture of the Catholic University of Leuven.; Realism Working Group. Founded in 2007, the Realism Working Group began as a student self-organized free-class seminar in Frankfurt am Main that since 2013 shifted to exploring the possibilities of collective housing. The current conditions of excessive gentrification in Frankfurt am Main led the Realism Working Group to focus on the model of the Mietshäuser Syndikat (Syndicate of Tenements) as a core field of research. In the project Wohnungsfrage the Group is represented by artists Martin Stiehl, Jessica Sehrt and Jeronimo Voss.
Abstract: The massification of urban life brings two new conditions: the city has to be shared with more people and the activities are compressed in space. In this way, not only the single-family house is turning into collective housing, but also the workplace is increasingly being mixed with the domestic space. Faced with this sort of neo-medieval scenario, this project proposes an alternative for this double synthesis between the individual and the collective and between life and work.
Keywords: private property; work; Friedrich Engels; capitalism; Mietshäuser Syndikat.
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Title: Santiago’s subway Line 6: under the lens of a user.
Author: Antonio Lipthay. Architect. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile,1998. Master in City Design and Social Sciences, The London School of Economics and Political Science, London, 2001. During his time in London, he worked for David Chipperfield Architects and the LSE Cities think-tank for urban studies, along with Ricky Burdett and Richard Sennett. Currently works as an urban advisor for Camden and Southwark districts in London. Has been professor at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, The London School of Economics and The University of East London. He is currently in charge of the Magister en Proyecto Urbano UC. In October 2005, he founded MOBIL Arquitectos together with Patricio Browne and Sebastián Morandé.; Juan Pablo Fernández. Draftsman. technical drawing studies at Duoc UC, 2017. Self taught photographer of architecture and city for over 10 years, in 2017 opened an Instagram account (@fegophotography) where he shares his photographs of everyday urban spaces.; Pedro Contrucci. Architect. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 2015. During his studies, was president of the Architecture Student Centre 2011 and assistant professor for Sebastián Gray, Ernesto Rodríguez and Luis Eduardo Bresciani. Has collaborated with the latter in urban plans and public space design. Was awarded the Hernan Riesco Grez award, the JUMP Chile innovation prize in 2015 and a finalist at the YAP_Constructo 2016 (MoMa Young Architects Program) contest. Since 2016, has been part of MOBIL Arquitectos studio and team.
Abstract: The design of the stations of a new subway line seems to be a problem in which architecture has a subsidiary role, since the daily movement of millions of people would be the most important objective. But this project shows that, when there is architecture, it is noticeable: the sizes and the quality of the surfaces not only prevent the mass transport experience to be overwhelming but also, in many cases, it can be even better than the city on the surface.
Keywords: Transport; station; pedestrian; Instagram; public space.
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Title: Modular System for Kindergartens
Author: Giancarlo Mazzanti. Architect. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana de Colombia, Postgraduate in History and Theory of Architecture, University of Florence, Italy 1991, Postgraduate in Industrial Design, University of Florence Italy, 1991. Has taught at the universities of Harvard, Columbia and Princeton, and is the first Colombian architect to exhibit his work at the MoMA’s permanent collection in New York and the Pompidou Center in Paris. His buildings and projects have been exhibited at the Venice Architecture Biennial (2016), the Milan Triennial (2016), the Chicago Architecture Biennial (2015), the Georges Pompidou Museum in Paris, France (2015) and the Museo Nacional Reina Sofía in Madrid, Spain. He is the author of Alfabetos, Variaciones en la Arquitectura (2000), Escenarios Deportivos Juegos Suramericanos de Medellín (Bogotá, 2000), and co-author of Tres Exposiciones Tres Juegos (Mexico City, 2017), and Inspiration and Process in Architecture, El Equipo Mazzanti (Milan, 2018). Is currently visiting professor at Columbia University in New York and at the University of Los Andes, Colombia, as well as design director at El Equipo Mazzanti.; Juan Manuel Gil Architect, Universidad del Valle Cali, Colombia, 2004. Has a broad experience in the Colombian private and public sector, specializing in budget management, project management and timeschedules.
Abstract: The so-called ‘social architecture’ is full of examples in which a poor design spoils well-intentioned aims. This project, however, is an exception to this rule: facing the state commission to build a system of kindergarten buildings to reach the youngest citizens of a country, the project starts from the smallest module to transform it into a combinatorial and repeatable system, thus allowing the intervention to reach a national scale.
Keywords: school; diagram; repetition; Reggio Emilia; typology.
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Title: Slums. Disassembling the Concept
Author: Alejandro de Castro Mazarro. Architect. MSc. in Advanced Architectural Design, Columbia University, 2009. Doctor in Architecture, Universidad Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, 2016. Contributed to the Chilean Architecture Biennial (2017), and the exhibition Participatory City at the Guggenheim Museum at New York (2013). He is co-editor of the book Who cares for Chilean cities? (ARQ and GSAPP, 2014) together with Francisco Díaz. De Castro Mazarro is Professor at Columbia University, and has been visiting professor at Harvard University, TU Darmstadt (Germany) and the International University of Catalonia in Barcelona.
Abstract: The idea that language constructs realities is almost commonplace. When looking at problematic contexts, however, the urgency to find a solution makes us forget that language also constructed this reality. By analyzing the concept of ‘slum,’ this text explains that its construction as a massive problem at a global level demanded an ambiguity that allowed it to adapt both to the different realities and to the expansive interests of the global agencies in charge of solving it.
Keywords: development; UN-Habitat; language; poverty; hegemony.
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Title: From Mass-Production to Mass-Destruction
Author: Pedro Ignacio Alonso. Architect. Master of Architecture, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 2000. Ph.D in Architecture, Architectural Association School of Architecture, United Kingdom, 2008. He is Associate Professor at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, where he currently serves as Vice Director of Research and Graduate Studies. He is also Visiting Professor at the Architectural Association, and Princeton-Mellon Fellow 2015-2016 at Princeton University. His publications include Panel (London: Architectural Association, 2014), Acronym (Santiago: ARQ, 2016), and Space Race Archaeologies: Photography, Biographies, and Design (Berlin: DOM, 2016). He has published articles in AA Files, San Rocco, Manifest and Circo, and book chapters with Routledge (2013), MIT Press (2014) and Actar (2016). Together with Hugo Palmarola he was awarded a Silver Lion as curator of the Chile Pavilion -Monolith Controversies- at the 14th Venice Architecture Biennial 2014, and their Monolith Controversies book (Hatje Cantz, 2014) obtained the DAM Architectural Book Award from the Deutsches Architekturmuseum in 2014.
Abstract: During the Cold War, the Soviet Union was expected to lead the world once capitalism fell prey to its intrinsic contradictions, as Marx envisioned. Yet, what is currently happening to mass-housing blocks in Russia contradicts him: the very technological advances that Khrushchev put at play to launch the mass-housing program have evolved and left the blocks prey to its own obsolescence. In this text we see how, while the former ussr has been finally taken over by capitalism, mass-destruction seems to be the ultimate fate for Soviet mass-housing.
Keywords: Collective Housing; Khrushchovkas; Conservation; Panel; Malevich.
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Title: The Interlace
Author: OMA The Office for Metropolitan Architecture – OMA – is a leading international partnership practicing architecture, urbanism, and cultural analysis, whose buildings and masterplans insist on inventing new possibilities for content and everyday use. On its part AMO, its research and design studio branch, works in areas beyond architecture that today have an increasing influence on architecture itself: media, politics, renewable energy, technology, publishing, fashion. AMO often works in parallel with OMA’s clients to fertilize architecture with intelligence from this array of disciplines. OMA is led by nine partners – Rem Koolhaas, Ellen van Loon, Reinier de Graaf, Shohei Shigematsu, Iyad Alsaka, David Gianotten, Chris van Duijn, Ippolito Pestellini Laparelli, Jason Long- and maintains offices in Rotterdam, New York, Beijing, Hong Kong, Doha and Dubai.; Ole Scheeren German-born architect, was educated at the universities of Karlsruhe and Lausanne, and completed his studies at London’s Architectural Association. He is currently Büro-OS’s chief designer. Among his recent projects are the MahaNakhon skyscraper in Bangkok, the DUO mixeduse towers in Singapore, and the Guardian Art Center in Beijing. Has won numerous awards, including World Building of the Year 2015 and the CTBUH Urban Habitat Award 2014 for The Interlace in Singapore, as well as the global CTBUH Best Tall Building Award 2013 for the CCTV Headquarters in Beijing. These projects are complemented by independent collaborations with filmmakers and artists, such as Archipelago Cinema (2012) and Mirage City Cinema (2013) for the Sharjah Art Foundation. Former director and partner at OMA, where he was responsible for the practice’s expansion into Asia as well as its work for Prada.
Abstract: It’s not easy to design a complex with over a thousand apartments that doesn’t look ‘massive.’ Through the overlapping of 31 blocks of six levels each, this project manages to combine repetition with variety, allowing the combination of a serialized element to be perceived as a unit. Thus, through a typological invention – carefully solved in all its complexities – the possibility of hosting diversity on a massive scale opens up.
Keywords: stacking; terraces; spatial structure; patio; apartment blocks.
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Title: How do we live? Housing Studios – Santiago Workshop
Author: Johanna Muszbek. M.Arch Moholy-Nagy University of Arts and Design, Budapest, Hungary, 2006. MSc in Advanced Architectural Design, Columbia University, USA, 2010. She is an architect and landscape architect, currently lecturer at the University of Liverpool. Co-founder of Ujirany Group, designers of the Millennium Park in Budapest. Her work has been exhibited at the Royal Institute of British Architects, the Glasshouse Hungarian Architecture Today, among others. She received the Golden Cross State Award of the Hungarian Republic. She is a curator for Hello Wood, an award winning independent educational platform in Hungary. Currently she is working on an international collaborative research and pedagogic programme titled Project Home.; ocelyn Froimovich Architect, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 2007. MSc. in Advanced Architectural Design, Columbia University, USA, 2010. Has taught in both Universidad Católica de Chile and Columbia University. Licensed architect in Chile and New York State, has worked for Bernard Tschumi, Weiss Manfredi, and Izquierdo Lehmann Architects. Was a collaborator for MoMA’s Young Architect’s Program COSMO, exhibited in 2015 at MoMA PS1. She is currently part of the research program on housing pedagogies ‘Project Home.’
Abstract: Housing is a permanent question for architecture: not only is always scarce, but it must also adapt to changes in the ways of life, the market and the urban expectations. Assuming this condition as an endemic crisis, this academic project uses urgency as a catalyst for proposals that update the architecture’s responses to massive housing.
Keywords: Bauhaus; type; advertisement; metropolis; crisis.
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Title: Largeness
Author: Luis Eduardo Bresciani L., Francisco Quintana, Nicolás Urzúa, Juan Pablo Vázquez.; Teaching Assistants: Pedro Pablo Contrucci, Valeria Muñoz y Begoña Uribe.; Text: Luis Eduardo Bresciani L.
Abstract: The complexity of the metropolitan condition is a factor that the teaching of architecture tends to skip. Although it is easier to assess singular proposals in contexts with few constraints at play, this implies a lack in delivering the tools needed to deal with complexity. This academic project – a studio – combines these two approaches through exercises in which the massiveness is faced with an urban fragment.
Keywords: metropolis; Bigness; aggregation; pedagogy; urbanism.
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Title: Patio Chiloé Building
Author: Marsino Arquitectura. Regional practice formed by architects, designers, engineers, sociologists and related disciplines, based in Santiago and with a branch in Lima. Led by architects Jorge Marsino and María Inés Buzzoni, its designs have been awarded at the architecture biennials of Chile and Quito, as well as the Bienal Iberoamericana de Arquitectura y Urbanismo BIAU. In 2011, its building Liceo Técnico Profesional La Florida was chosen as one of the five Exemplary Education Establishments worldwide by the Center for Effective Learning Environments (OCDE). The practice has been also awarded the third place in the Work of the Year 2016 granted by Archdaily for its Department of Physics Building at the University of Tarapacá and the nomination of the same project to the Mies Crown Hall Americas Prize MCHAP 2016.
Abstract: Urban densification implies an unavoidable paradox: in order to allow more people to live in it, it is necessary to disrupt something existent. Thus, in established neighborhoods with suitable facilities, new massive housing will always compete with the possibility of having left everything as it was before. This project is an opportunity to discuss this condition from the point of view of architecture, without implying with it to leave aside other aspects of a manifold problem.
Keywords: grid; façade; real estate; value; mural.
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Title: Massive housing in central neighborhoods: who is responsible for the excessive densification?.
Author: Juan Pablo Martínez. Commercial Engineer and Master in Sociology UC, Chile. Corporate Affairs Manager at Socovesa Companies. Former member of ICARE and columnist at the journal Qué Pasa. Co-author, together with Iván Poduje and Nicolás Jobet, of the book Infilling: Cómo cambió Santiago y nuestra forma de vivir la ciudad (Hueders, 2015). Member of the Real Estate Developers Association’s strategic committee and Chair of Corporación Educacional Emprender. Professor at UAI Business School, Chile.; Ernesto López Architect and Master in Urban Planning, Universidad de Chile. PhD. in Planning Studies, University College of London. Associate Professor at the Urbanism Department and Academic Coordinator at the Magister in Urbanismo, Universidad de Chile. Researcher at the Center for the Study of Conflict and Social Cohesion (COES). Has published the books Planetary Gentrification (Polity Press, 2016), Global Gentrifications (Policy Press, 2015) and Chile Urbano (Editorial Universitaria, 2013).
Abstract: Although the phenomenon was evident at least several years ago in various communes of Santiago, it was not until 2017 that housing hyper-densification by real estate companies exploded: a tweet by Claudio Orrego, then the mayor of the Metropolitan Santiago, put this topic on the agenda when showing the image of a real estate building of an impressive density for the local reality. After that, the controversy regarding responsibility was immediate: the State criticized the greed of the private and the permissiveness of the local government, while real estate companies defended themselves by blaming the rules. Now that the polemic has settled down, and considering that while the controversy is over the buildings are still there, we think it is necessary to return to this discussion, apropos the subject of this issue of ARQ: how to make massive housing today when the State lacks the capabilities it had 50 years ago? Who is held responsible to lead in this issue? Can this problem be left only in the hands of private companies, as it has happened up to now?.
Keywords: Vertical ghettos; Real estate; Santiago; High-rise housing; Twitter.
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Editorial. What happened to the masses?

Although famous for their pessimism, Adorno and Horkheimer hardly imagined that, decades after writing: “the masses are too astute to identify with the millionaire on the screen”, reality would overcome their worst nightmares (Adorno & Horkheimer, 2002:116). In the second decade of the 21st century, the masses are not only not so astute, but they do not even recognize themselves as such.

A century ago, the rise of mass society was a key issue and architecture played a significant role in that debate. For instance, faced with the elite’s disdain towards those masses looking for distraction, Benjamin recognized a different kind of mass reception in architecture: usage or distracted perception offered an alternative to the attention required by other art forms (Benjamin, 2008:39). At the same time, a trained architect like Kracauer not only stood for the legitimacy of aesthetic pleasure in mass ornament, since “its degree of reality” was “still higher than that of artistic productions which cultivate outdated noble sentiments,” but also saw them as one of the few creations of his time (Kracauer, 1995:79).

In that mass society, architecture also took part in more complex aspects. One of those was the emergence of Fascism: the ability of Terragni’s Casa del Fascio (1936) or Speer’s Cathedral of Light (1934-1938) to frame the gathering of large crowds turned agglomeration into an aesthetic spectacle while dehumanizing the individual through his/her abstraction into the mass. Meanwhile, mass-housing’s ability to provide shelter for multitudes of people meant facing large numbers through repeatable solutions; thus, modern architecture replied with standardization strategies without questioning the main feature of the standard: the erasure of difference. This way, both approaches ended up contributing to alienation, either through the aesthetic abstraction of large crowds or the economic abstraction of large numbers.

Nowadays, the scale of the massive is different. No era has built as much nor it has been in charge of as much population as ours. Moreover, none had so many architects. Today, it seems that everything is massive: catastrophes, hunger, wealth, migration, production, fashion or cities. As Reinhold Martin (2011:72) accurately says, “the new tendency toward quantity conjures something like a mathematical or statistical sublime.” This issue of ARQ not only analyzes that condition but also seeks to interrogate it from architecture. Anna Puigjaner shows us collective kitchens all around the world. Saskia Sassen observes the massive inequalities we currently face. Keller Easterling proposes a smartphone app to generate changes on a large scale. Baraona and Reyes show us the energy costs involved in the production of bitcoins. Dogma discusses collective housing coupled with workplaces. MOBIL Arquitectos proves, through a new subway line in Santiago, that architecture can improve mass transport experience. El Equipo Mazzanti systematizes architecture to intervene on a massive scale. De Castro questions the massiveness of a concept formulated by global organizations. Pedro Alonso shows us how Soviet housing is massively being destroyed in Moscow. OMA and Büro Ole Scheeren manage to make a complex of over 1,000 apartments seem less massive. Muszbek and Froimovich reposition the housing-crisis argument. Bresciani and his studio explore the design of entire urban pieces. The project by Marsino allows to reassess market-developed mass housing. Finally, accountabilities for hyperdensification in Santiago are discussed in the debate. As we can see, this issue is the proof that approaches to what is massive are still multiple.

Despite not being a great subject matter, massiveness today is bigger than a century ago, as alienation persists. If in the 1930s the exacerbation of general uniformity obscured individual differences, today the exacerbation of individual differences conceals the uniformity of general elections. For example, now we can pay to choose what to watch privately, but we still end up watching the same shows as others; or we customize devices that are the same as those that everyone has. Interestingly, nobody would say that we are living in a mass society. Have we ended up naturalizing massiveness?

Naturalization, as we know, nullifies the possibility of questioning things. That is to say, it brutalizes us. A century ago, while modernity revolutionized aesthetics in ways that still influence us today, a society of alienated masses surrendered to nationalisms, deriving in atrocities of a massive scale. Today, history seems to repeat itself. Adorno and Horkheimer were aware that, in mass society, “the advance of stupidity” goes hand in hand with the “advance of intelligence” (Adorno & Horkheimer, 2002:116). We hope that, after a century of hard learning, we had internalized both the fear of the former as well as the need to take care of the latter.

* ADORNO Theodor; HORKHEIMER Max. Dialectic Of Enlightenment, Philosophical Fragments. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press 2002 (1947))

* BENJAMIN, Walter. The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility, and Other Writings on Media. (Cambridge, MA; London, England: The Belknap Press, 2008).

* KRACAUER, Siegfried. The Mass Ornament: Weimar Essays (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995 (1927)).

* MARTIN, Reinhold. “Financial Imaginaries: Toward a Philosophy of the City”. Grey Room 42 (Winter 2011): 60-79.